Experiments in the Revival of Organisms

Experiments in the Revival of Organisms
Experiment1940.jpg

Screenshot from the film showing the dog's head attached to Brukhonenko's
autojektor
基本资料
片长 19:31
产地 苏联
语言
  • Russian
  • English
上映及发行
上映日期 1940
预算 £20,000
Experiments in the Revival of Organisms

Screenshot from the film showing the dog's head attached to Brukhonenko's
autojektor
基本资料
片长 19:31
产地 苏联
语言
上映及发行
上映日期 1940
预算 £20,000

Experiments in the Revival of Organisms (俄语:Эксперименты по оживлению организма) 是一部1940年的电影,该电影记录了苏联学者对试图复活已临床死亡的有机体的研究工作。现在该影片属于 公有领域。这些手术由谢尔盖·布留霍年科和鲍里斯·列文斯科夫斯基完成,他们当时正在向位于莫斯科的第二届俄罗斯病理学家大会展示一种称为autojektor的特殊心肺仪器,也称为心肺机。该影片摄录于同样位于莫斯科的实验生理学与治疗研究所俄语Институт экспериментальной физиологии и терапии 这种心肺机由Brukhonenko设计并制造,他在影片中所展示的工作据说开创了苏联史上在心瓣进行手术的先河。在影片中所展示的autojektor设备与现行的体外膜氧合设备以及肾透析系统类似。

  • 1 Synopsis
  • 2 Reaction
  • 3 In popular culture
  • 4 See also
  • 5 References
  • 6 External links

Synopsis


播放媒体

Full English version of the film

该影片描绘并讨论了一系列医学实验。影片开头画面为英国科学家约翰·伯顿·桑德森·霍尔丹陈述他如何亲自看过电影中所执行的程序并挽救了战争中的生命。实验一开始便展示了一颗与身体分离开的狗的心脏;4个相连的管后来被连接到器官上。在使用一种器械后,心脏以正常的、如同在机体内的方式跳动。然后显示了托盘内的一个肺,这是通过使血液充氧的风箱来操作的。

Following the lung scene, the audience is then shown a heart-lung machine英语heart-lung machine, composed of a pair of diaphragm linear pumps, venous and arterial, exchanging oxygen with a water reservoir. It is then seen supplying a canine head with oxygenated blood. The head is presented with external stimuli, which it responds to. Finally, a dog is brought to clinical death (depicted mostly via a graphical plot of lung and heart activity) by draining all blood from it. It is then left for ten minutes and connected to the heart-lung machine, which gradually returns the blood into the animal's circulation. After several minutes, the heart fibrillates, then restarts a normal rhythm. Respiration likewise resumes and the machine is removed. Over the ensuing ten days, the dog recovers from the procedure and continues living a healthy life. According to the film, several dogs were brought back to life using this method, including one which is an offspring of parents who were both also resuscitated.

Reaction

A patent diagram showing the setup of the procedure

Brukhonenko's decapitation experiment was remarked upon by 萧伯纳.

Brukhonenko developed a new version of the autojektor (for use on humans) in the same year; it can be seen today on display at the Museum of Cardiovascular Surgery at the Bakulev Scientific Center of Cardiovascular Surgery英语Bakulev Scientific Center of Cardiovascular Surgery in Russia. Brukhonenko was posthumously awarded the prestigious 列宁奖.

Some commentators have questioned the film's authenticity, given that none of the more dubious experiments are shown in any full-frame shots. According to some scientists who claim to have seen the experiments in the film, the severed dog head only survived for a few minutes when attached to the artificial heart, as opposed to the hours claimed in the film.

In popular culture

  • In 2004 MF Doom released his song Fall Back / Titty Fat (through his album Venomous Villain) which begins and ends with excerpts from the experiment. The music video for this song largely consists of segments from the 1940 motion picture.
  • In 2009, the band The Paper Chase (band)英语The Paper Chase (band) used portions of the film in their video "What Should We Do with Your Body? (The Lightning)".
  • A portion of the plot of 詹姆士·罗林斯' novel Bloodline is based on this experiment.
  • The 1945 novel That Hideous Strength英语That Hideous Strength by C·S·路易斯 makes reference to the experiments.
  • Polish poet 维斯拉瓦·辛波丝卡 references the experiment in her poem "The Experiment" circa 1967.
  • 金属乐队's video for their song "All Nightmare Long英语All Nightmare Long" is partially based on the video, and shows Soviet scientists reanimating a dead cat.
  • In the video game 绝地要塞2, a cosmetic set for the Medic is called Canis Ex Machina in reference to the Soviet experiments in 1940.

See also

  • List of films in the public domain in the United States英语List of films in the public domain in the United States
  • 暂停生命
  • 研究

References

  1. ^ Experiments in the Revival of Organisms. Prelinger Archives. Techfilm Studios, Moscow. . 
  2. ^ Krementsov, Nikolai. Off with your heads: isolated organs in early Soviet science and fiction. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences. June 2009, 40 (2): 87–100 . 
  3. ^ Swain, Frank. How to Make a Zombie: The Real Life (and Death) Science of Reanimation and Mind Control. Oneworld Publications. 2013-06-11: 39. ISBN 9781851689446 (英语). 
  4. ^ Konstantinov, Igor; Alexi-Meskishvili, Vladimir. Sergei S. Brukhonenko: The Development of the First Heart-Lung Machine for Total Body Perfusion.. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2000, 69 (3): 962–966 . 
  5. ^ Experiments in the Revival of Organisms. Prelinger Archives. Techfilm Studios, Moscow. . 
  6. ^ Sergej Sergejewitsch Brychonenko. . (原始内容存档于2007-01-21). 
  7. ^ Museum of Cardiovascular Surgery. . (原始内容存档于2006-02-08). 
  8. ^ ЛАБОРАТОРИЯ ЭКСПЕРИМЕНТАЛЬНОЙ ПАТОЛОГИИ. . (原始内容存档于January 29, 2007). . sklifos.ru (in Russian)
  9. ^ Bellows, Alan. Alien Hand Syndrome: And Other Too-Weird-Not-to-Be-True Stories. Workman Publishing. 2009: 32–3. ISBN 9780761152255 (英语). 
  10. ^ "What Should We Do With Your Body? (The Lightning)" video. YouTube. . 
  11. ^ "Wisława Szymborska III (The Experiment)" Poem. 

External links

  • Hill, JD (September 1982). "John H. Gibbon, Jr. Part I. The development of the first successful heart-lung machine.". The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 34 (3): 337–341. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  • Fou, Adora Ann (1997). "John H. Gibbon. The first 20 years of the heart-lung machine." Texas Heart Institute Journal. 24 (1): 1–8. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  • Krementsov, Nikolai (June 2009). "Off with your heads: isolated organs in early Soviet science and fiction". Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences. 40 (2): 87–100. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  • Passaroni, Andréia; Silva, Marcos; Yoshida, Winston (November 2014). "Cardiopulmonary bypass: development of John Gibbon's heart-lung machine". 30 (2): 235–245. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  • Blair-St. Giles, et al (August 1983). "Dying and death, with special reference to brain death. A bibliography". Resuscitation. 10 (4): 235–251. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  • Time Magazine reports on the film's premiere
  • The Autojektor on display at the Scientific Center of Cardiovascular Surgery (in Russian) (via Wayback Machine)
  • A medical paper on Brukhonenko's work (in Russian, requires PubMed access)
  • Brukhonenko excerpt from "The Golden Book of Russia. The Year 2000"

Category:Soviet black-and-white films英语Category:Soviet black-and-white films Category:Soviet films英语Category:Soviet films Category:1940s documentary films英语Category:1940s documentary films Category:Black-and-white documentary films英语Category:Black-and-white documentary films Category:Articles containing video clips英语Category:Articles containing video clips

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